Olavi Koivukangas: Sea, Gold & Sugarcane. Attraction versus Distance Finns in Australia 1851–1947. Migration Studies C 8. Institute of Migration, Turku 1986. 401 pages.

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The first comprehensive study of the early Finns in Australia, starting with H.D. Spöring’s visit to Australia in the “Endeavour” with James Cook in 1770. The first permanent settlers from Finland were seamen and argonauts on the New South Wales and Victorian Goldfields after 1851. The third magnet was sugarcane in North Queensland, especially in the 1920s. The Finnish presence was most conspicuous in coastal seafaring, mining – especially Mt. Lyell and Mt. Isa – and in clearing land for farming. This book is a Finnish contribution to the bicentenary of European Australia 1988.