Keijo Virtanen: Settlement or Return: Finnish Emigrants (1860–1930) in the International Overseas Return Migration Movement. Migration Studies C 5. Forssa 1979, 275 p.
The Finnish return rate among those emigrating between the 1860s and 1930 was about one fifth (of the 380 000 emigrants, about 75 000 returned permanently), which is on approximately the same scale as in Sweden and Denmark. About 10 % of all the Finnish migrants made two or more journeys overseas in the period up to 1930